WHAT IS THE HEAT PUMP
The heat pump is a device that uses the energy of the environment, it works like a refrigerator, only in the reverse way, that is, heat on the hot side is used for heating or hot water production.
Its main advantage is that it can be operated economically and, in addition, it does not harm the environment.
Since the heat does not flow from a colder place to the warmer itself, so external energy needs to be invested into this. For the heat pump, the energy is not used directly for heat production. electric heating systems, but also transport heat to a higher temperature medium (apartment, house, etc.). Heat can serve as a source of soil, outside air, wells, river or lake waters, etc …
The heat pump can also be used for cooling, in which case heat from the warmer room (apartment, office, house) and release it to the outside media.
Its operation rests on the physical principle that condensation (from the gas will become fluid)) will heat its environment (heat), while evaporation (from gas to the gases) will heat heat, ie cool its environment.
When comparing the heat pumps, it is basically worth considering the efficiency, which is characterized by the COP (Coefficient of Performance) indicator, showing how many times the heat used to operate the heat pump is in heat. Typical values range from 4 to 5, which means that unit uses electricity to produce 4-5 units of homoerate. Due to the seasonal change in the temperature of the outer medium, the SPF (Seasonal Performance Factor) is more accurate.
The main types of heat pumps:
Air-to-Water Heat Pump:
uses heat (heat) of the outside air to extract heat from the room you are heating to, and when it is cooled, it turns the other way around to cool the inside out. The advantage is that it is relatively inexpensive and easy to install, but its great disadvantage is that its efficiency depends significantly on the outside air temperature, the cooler the air, the less heat it can use, so that much cold is needed in order to operate it very cold.
Soil heat pump:
uses the heat emitted by the rain and the sun in the upper layer of the soil. Stored heat energy can be extracted with frost-resistant pipes about one and a half feet deep. Its disadvantage is that it requires great earthwork, which is not only costly, but it also involves breaking up a large area.
Soil heat pump (main water):
uses ground-fed solar energy and geothermal energy during the installation, depths up to about 100 meters deep are drawn, into which U-shaped probes are placed through which the circulating medium (cooling) heat (heating). It has a great advantage that its efficiency is constant, independent of weather. A preferential GEO or H tariff can be used to operate the ground heat pump.
Well-water (water-to-water) heat pump:
Due to the relatively high temperature of the groundwater, the most efficient type of heat sink, with the least amount of electric energy input, can achieve the same heat energy. Virtually two wells are needed for a swamp and a winning well. Its operation makes it difficult to ensure continuous and constant flow of water, and there is a great problem with so-called “collapse”, ie clogging on the surface of the tube.
For accurate planning of geothermal systems, you need to know the soil’s thermo-physical and geological characteristics. Geothermal Response Test can be achieved. Based on the results obtained, the total number of probes to be installed should be determined. Over-or under-sized heat-injection system significantly damages the efficiency of the system and increases the cost of investment and / or operation.